When your doctor informs you that you have a neoplastic neoplasma, you can probably be thinking what to do now and how to go about treating it. The word “neoplastic” simply refers to a cancer. A doctor can diagnose this condition based on physical appearance – including through a colonoscopy – but more often than not a biopsy will be needed to confirm whether it’s malignant (cancerous) or not. There are two types of neoplasia, each with its own set of treatment options and prognosis. Here, we will be going over each type of neoplasia.
Adenomas are tumors of the blood vessels and lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity. They are not generally malignant, but there are cases where they may require removal. Some of the treatment options that are available for adenomas include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Surgery is used when adenomas cannot be removed surgically; however, it has the potential to cause significant scarring on the patient.
Pneumocystis neoplasia occurs when a bacterium makes its way into the lungs. When it does, it causes a pulmonary infection, which results in thickening and growth of mucus. Once this happens, the organism multiplies rapidly and can enter the bloodstream, causing pneumonia and anemia. As such, pneumonia is treated through antibiotics and IV fluids. Antibiotics are used to kill the organism, while IV fluids are given to help improve the blood’s fluidity and to minimize inflammation. This neoplasia may need surgical intervention.
Endocrine cancer (also referred to as nephrotic syndrome) is a type of neoplasia that can affect the pancreas, adrenal glands or testes. It is very rare, although in women, endocrine neoplasms are more likely to be pancreatic than ovarian. When the pancreas and adrenal glands are affected, insulin and blood glucose levels can drop and can lead to hypoglycemia. When this happens, the pancreas and adrenal glands release glucocorticoids, which can stimulate glucose production in the bloodstream. Endocrine tumors also result in the destruction of the pancreas and adrenal glands. Although not considered malignant endocrine neoplasms should be treated, as they can lead to complications like pancreatic cancer or endocrine pancreaticosterosis.
Lymph node metastasis is when a cancer forms in the lymph nodes. It can be present in two forms: pleural mesothelioma and peritoneal mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma involves the growth of cells in the lung or abdomen. Peritoneal mesothelioma, on the other hand, involves a cancer of the wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. A diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma requires a lung scan to see if the tumor is in fact related to the lungs.
Treatment options for lymph node metastasis include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with surgery, while immunotherapy can be administered as a stand alone treatment. Surgery is sometimes used in conjunction with chemotherapy to eliminate the cancer.
The chemotherapy and immunotherapy options for lymph node metastasis differ from one person to the other. While some people respond to chemo more effectively than others, it may have serious side effects.
Although cancer has no known cure, treatments such as surgery and chemotherapy can bring about the elimination of the cancer. For instance, a treatment called limb sparing mesothelioma removal, uses a procedure where a large section of the tissue of the tumor is removed but leaves a large portion of the body intact. In the past, a cure for this type of cancer has been slow in developing.
Chemotherapy is usually used when the cancer is still active because it can boost the immune system to kill the cancer. Chemotherapies include:
B-cells: B-cells stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that attack the tumors and any bacteria that may be in the infected area. Once the cancer is removed, the remaining B-cells have no further effect on the body.
Anti-cancer drugs: Anti-cancer drugs are also commonly used in treating these types of cancers. They stop the growth of new tumors and kill off existing tumors. These drugs are available as: